Command Line Tooling

Expressive offers a number of tools for assisting in project development. This page catalogues each.

Development Mode

The package zfcampus/zf-development-mode provides a simple way to toggle in and out of development mode. Doing so allows you to ship known development-specific settings within your repository, while ensuring they are not enabled in production. The tooling essentially enables optional, development-specific configuration in your application by:

The package provides the tooling via vendor/bin/zf-development-mode. If you are using the Expressive skeleton, it provides aliases via Composer:

$ composer development-enable
$ composer development-disable
$ composer development-status

Add settings to your development.*.php.dist files, and commit those files to your repository; always toggle out of and into development mode after making changes, to ensure they pick up in your development environment.

Expressive command-line tool

The package zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling provides the script vendor/bin/expressive, which contains a number of commands related to migration, modules, and middleware.

You can install it if it is not already present in your application:

$ composer require --dev zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling

If you installed the Expressive skeleton prior to version 2.0.2, you will want to update the tooling to get the latest release, which contains the expressive binary, as follows:

$ composer require --dev "zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling:^0.4.1"

Once installed, invoking the binary without arguments will give a listing of available tools:

$ ./vendor/bin/expressive

Commands supported include:

You may obtain full help for each command by invoking:

$ ./vendor/bin/expressive help <command>


The package zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling provides the binary vendor/bin/expressive-module, which allows you to create, register, and deregister modules, assuming you are using a modular application layout.

For instance, if you wish to create a new module for managing users, you might execute the following:

$ ./vendor/bin/expressive-module create User

Which would create the following tree:


It would also create an autoloading rule within your composer.json for the User namespace, pointing it at the src/User/src/ tree (and updating the autoloader in the process), and register the new module's ConfigProvider within your config/config.php.

The register command will take an existing module and:

$ ./vendor/bin/expressive-module register Account

The deregister command does the opposite of register.

$ ./vendor/bin/expressive-module deregister Account

Migrate to programmatic pipelines

We recommend using programmatic pipelines, versus configuration-defined pipelines. For those upgrading their applications from 1.X versions, we provide a tool that will read their application configuration and generate:

To use this feature, you will need to first install zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling:

$ composer require --dev zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling

Invoke it as follows:

$ ./vendor/bin/expressive-pipeline-from-config generate

The tool will notify you of any errors, including whether or not it found (and skipped) Stratigility v1-style "error middleware".

Detect usage of legacy getOriginal*() calls

When upgrading to version 2.0, you will also receive an upgrade to zendframework/zend-stratigility 2.0. That version eliminates internal decorator classes for the request and response instances, which were used to provide access to the outermost request/response; internal layers could use these to determine the full URI that resulted in their invocation, which is useful when you pipe using a path argument (as the path provided during piping is stripped from the URI when invoking the matched middleware).

This affects the following methods:

To provide equivalent functionality, we provide a couple of tools.

First, Stratigility provides middleware, Zend\Stratigility\Middleware\OriginalMessages, which will inject the current request, its URI, and, if invoked as double-pass middleware, current response, as request attributes, named, respectively, originalRequest, originalUri, and originalResponse. (Since Expressive 2.0 decorates double-pass middleware using a wrapper that composes a response, the "original response" will be the response prototype composed in the Application instance.) This should be registered as the outermost middleware layer. Middleware that needs access to these instances can then use the following syntax to retrieve them:

$originalRequest = $request->getAttribute('originalRequest', $request);
$originalUri = $request->getAttribute('originalUri', $request->getUri();
$originalResponse = $request->getAttribute('originalResponse') ?: new Response();

Original response is not trustworthy

As noted above, the "original response" will likely be injected with the response prototype from the Application instance. We recommend not using it, and instead either composing a pristine response instance in your middleware, or creating a new instance on-the-fly.

To aid you in migrating your existing code to use the new getAttribute() syntax, zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling provides a binary, vendor/bin/expressive-migrate-original-messages. First, install that package:

$ composer require --dev zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling

Then invoke it as follows:

$ ./vendor/bin/expressive-migrate-original-messages scan

This script will update any getOriginalRequest() and getOriginalUri() calls, and notify you of any getOriginalResponse() calls, providing you with details on how to correct those manually.

Detect usage of legacy error middleware

When upgrading to version 2.0, you will also receive an upgrade to zendframework/zend-stratigility 2.0. That version eliminates what was known as "error middleware", middleware that either implemented Zend\Stratigility\ErrorMiddlewareInterface, or duck-typed it by implementing the signature function ($error, $request, $response, callable $next).

Such "error middleware" allowed other middleware to invoke the $next argument with an additional, third argument representing an error condition; when that occurred, Stratigility/Expressive would start iterating through error middleware until one was able to return a response. Each would receive the error as the first argument, and determine how to act upon it.

With version 2.0 of each project, such middleware is now no longer accepted, and users should instead be using the new error handling features. However, you may find that:

To help you identify such instances, zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling provides the script vendor/bin/expressive-scan-for-error-middleware. First, install that package:

$ composer require --dev zendframework/zend-expressive-tooling

Then invoke it as follows:

$ ./vendor/bin/expressive-scan-for-error-middleware scan

The script will notify you of any places where it finds either use case, and provide feedback on how to update your application.