The Template Renderer Interface

Expressive defines Zend\Expressive\Template\TemplateRendererInterface, which can be injected into middleware in order to create templated response bodies. The interface is defined as follows:

namespace Zend\Expressive\Template;

interface TemplateRendererInterface
    public const TEMPLATE_ALL = '*';

     * Render a template, optionally with parameters.
     * Implementations MUST support the `namespace::template` naming convention,
     * and allow omitting the filename extension.
     * @param array|object $params
    public function render(string $name, $params = []) : string;

     * Add a template path to the engine.
     * Adds a template path, with optional namespace the templates in that path
     * provide.
    public function addPath(string $path, string $namespace = null) : void;

     * Retrieve configured paths from the engine.
     * @return TemplatePath[]
    public function getPaths() : array;

     * Add a default parameter to use with a template.
     * Use this method to provide a default parameter to use when a template is
     * rendered. The parameter may be overridden by providing it when calling
     * `render()`, or by calling this method again with a null value.
     * The parameter will be specific to the template name provided. To make
     * the parameter available to any template, pass the TEMPLATE_ALL constant
     * for the template name.
     * If the default parameter existed previously, subsequent invocations with
     * the same template name and parameter name will overwrite.
     * @param string $templateName Name of template to which the param applies;
     *     use TEMPLATE_ALL to apply to all templates.
     * @param mixed $value
    public function addDefaultParam(string $templateName, string $param, $value) : void;


Unfortunately, namespace syntax varies between different template engine implementations. As an example:

  • Plates uses the syntax namespace::template.
  • Twig uses the syntax @namespace/template.
  • zend-view does not natively support namespaces, though custom resolvers can provide the functionality.

To make different engines compatible, we require implementations to support the syntax namespace::template (where namespace:: is optional) when rendering. Additionally, we require that engines allow omitting the filename suffix.

When using a TemplateRendererInterface implementation, feel free to use namespaced templates, and to omit the filename suffix; this will make your code portable and allow it to use alternate template engines.


Most template engines and implementations will require that you specify one or more paths to templates; these are then used when resolving a template name to the actual template. You may use the addPath() method to do so:


Template engines adapted for zend-expressive are also required to allow namespacing templates; when adding a path, you specify the template namespace that it fulfills, and the engine will only return a template from that path if the namespace provided matches the namespace for the path.

// Resolves to a path registered with the namespace "error";
// this example is specific to the Plates engine.
$content = $renderer->render('error::404');

You can provide a namespace when registering a path via an optional second argument:

// Registers the "error" namespace to the path "templates/error/"
$renderer->addPath('templates/error/', 'error');


To render a template, call the render() method. This method requires the name of a template as the first argument:

$content = $renderer->render('foo');

You can specify a namespaced template using the syntax namespace::template; the template segment of the template name may use additional directory separators when necessary.

One key reason to use templates is to dynamically provide data to inject in the template. You may do so by passing either an associative array or an object as the second argument to render():

$content = $renderer->render('message', [
    'greeting'  => 'Hello',
    'recipient' => 'World',

It is up to the underlying template engine to determine how to perform the injections.

Default params

The TemplateRendererInterface defines the method addDefaultParam(). This method can be used to specify default parameters to use when rendering a template. The signature is:

public function addDefaultParam($templateName, $param, $value)

If you want a parameter to be used for every template, you can specify the constant TemplateRendererInterface::TEMPLATE_ALL for the $templateName parameter.

When rendering, parameters are considered in the following order, with later items having precedence over earlier ones:

As an example, if we did the following:

$renderer->addDefaultParam($renderer::TEMPLATE_ALL, 'foo', 'bar');
$renderer->addDefaultParam($renderer::TEMPLATE_ALL, 'bar', 'baz');
$renderer->addDefaultParam($renderer::TEMPLATE_ALL, 'baz', 'bat');

$renderer->addDefaultParam('example', 'foo', 'template default foo');
$renderer->addDefaultParam('example', 'bar', 'template default bar');

$content = $renderer->render('example', [
    'foo' => 'override',

Then we can expect the following substitutions will occur when rendering:

Support for default params

The support for default params will often be renderer-specific. The reason is because the render() signature does not specify a type for $params, in order to allow passing alternative arguments such as view models. In such cases, the implementation will indicate its behavior when default parameters are specified, but a given $params argument does not support it.

At the time of writing, each of the Plates, Twig, and zend-view implementations support the feature.